All about COVID-19(Coronavirus infectious disease).

What are Coronaviruses?

Coronavirus belongs to the family of viruses that are common in birds and mammals. 

According to the World Health Organization, these viruses can transmit between animals and humans. 

What is COVID-19?

COVID-19 is a Coronavirus Infectious Disease. It is caused by the most recently discovered corona-virus.

Its outbreak began in Wuhan, China in December 2019. 

Why are they called Coronaviruses?

The word CORONA is a Latin word that means Crown.

The Coronavirus has spiky projections on their outer surfaces that resemble the points of a crown. 

What are the types of Coronaviruses?

There are four subgroups of coronaviruses;

  1. Alpha,
  2. Beta,
  3. Gama, and
  4. Delta

The Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus infect mammals. Whereas, the Gamacoronavirus infects birds. The Deltacoronavirus can infect mammals and birds both.


Sometimes the viruses infecting animals or birds can evolve and become a human coronavirus. It can make people sick and also die. 

Some recent cases are;

  1. SARC-Cov(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) was recognized first in China in 2002. It jumped from civet cats to humans and caused about 800 deaths worldwide. 
  1. MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) was first recognized in Saudi Arabia in 2012. It infected camels before humans and caused approximately 860 deaths in 27 countries. 

Both of these are Betacoronavirus and were emerged from bats. 

The range of illness is from mild to severe and also causing deaths.


It is a newly identified coronavirus. 

It is different from the coronaviruses usually found in humans. The range of illness is from mild to severe. 

This virus was identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, due to a sudden outbreak of pneumonia. 

Snakes and bats are the potential sources of the outbreak. Analysis and researches are going on to find the exact source of origin of the virus.

The number of infected people and the number of deaths are still rising. 

The initial transmission of the virus was due to animal markets and seafood consumption. But, now the virus is transmitting from person to person. 

How is coronavirus transmitted?


Coronavirus transmits between humans through airborne droplets of fluid produced by infected individuals. 

These droplets generate while the infected person is breathing, coughing, or sneezing. 

The virus is heavy so the droplets do not remain in the air but land on surfaces. It stays on that surface for several hours, and whosoever comes in the contact of that surface will catch the virus. 

When the virus from an infected person enters the body of an uninfected person, it tries to infect it too. 

The core of the coronavirus contains genetic materials. This material injects into unprotected cells through the spiky proteins.

The virus merges with the cell and infects it.

 After this, the virus sheds its coat, and the infected cell starts churning new viruses. 


The major problem with the COVID-19 is that its incubation period is 2-15 days. It means that an infected person will get to feel symptoms after 2-15 days. 

During this period, whoever gets in contact with that person, get into high risk of getting infected. 

The symptoms of the virus can be as common as:

  1. Fever,
  2. Cough,
  3. Cold,
  4. Body aches,
  5. Sour Throat, and 
  6. Short of breath, etc.  

People might also experience mild chest pain and severe respiratory infections.

Vomiting, nausea, and dizziness can also be rare symptoms. 


The rate of transmission of the virus is increasing constantly. The virus is contagious and the ease of its spreading is not yet explicit. 

So, to avoid the person to person spread start the following;

  1. Regularly wash your hands.
  2. Cover your mouth and nose to avoid constant touching. 
  3. Avoid close contact with people EVEN IF THEY DO NOT SHOW SYMPTOMS. 
  4. Regularly clean and disinfect furniture and other objects around you.
  5. Do not touch your face and eat with unwashed hands.
  6. Drink lots and lots of water. (Form healthy habits.)
  7. Stay at home. (There are a lot of things you can do at home.)
  8. Avoid public transports if you have to get out of the house during an emergency. 
  9. Clean every packet of things you have purchased from the market. 
  10. Work from home, avoid crowded places. 

Prevention is always better than cure. 


Doctors can test it by analyzing respiratory specimens of people.

Also, there are no specific treatments for human coronaviruses. 

People recover themselves by taking pain killers and fever medications. But the COVID-19 is very serious and the antidote for the same is not yet made. 

Doctors and medical experts around the globe are working to find a solution to this situation. 


Coronaviruses are primarily found in mammals and birds but can spread to humans. 

We are familiar with human coronaviruses and the symptoms of the illnesses they cause. 

SARS and MERS are some recent cases of human coronaviruses and also the most recent Novel Coronavirus. 

Researches are going on to find the sources of origin and treatment of the virus. The updates will be posted as soon as the research is complete. 

Till then, let’s prevent ourselves and everyone else by spreading awareness.


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